Nuevas contribuciones tecnológicas al estudio de la salsa garum a partir del análisis químico de restos ictiológicos de la ‘Tienda del Garum’ de Pompeya (I.12.8)

Álvaro RODRÍGUEZ-ALCÁNTARA, Ana M. ROLDÁN-GÓMEZ, Darío BERNAL-CASASOLA, Enrique GARCÍA-VARGAS, Víctor M. PALACIOS-MACÍAS

Resumen


La salsa garum fue un ingrediente popular en la gastronomía romana, sin embargo, su proceso de producción sigue siendo desconocido y se han conservado pocos restos del producto en el mundo antiguo. El objetivo del estudio fue realizar una comparativa de la composición química de los restos de seis dolia procedentes de la ‘Tienda del Garum’ de Pompeya (Italia) y del garum obtenido a partir de la receta clásica de Gargilio Marcial, para determinar técnicas de elaboración, ingredientes y aditivos. Se determinaron algunos indicadores orgánicos e inorgánicos específicos para las salsas de pescado con gran estabilidad fisicoquímica. Se han determinado los contenidos en nitrógeno total, grasas, cenizas, ácidos grasos y perfil mineral tanto en las muestras arqueológicas como en las muestras obtenidas por arqueología experimental. Las diferencias observadas en los contenidos en nitrógeno y grasas entre los dolia podrían indicar que en la ‘Tienda del Garum’ se estaban elaborando diferentes lotes de salsa de pescado. Los resultados observados en el perfil de ácidos grasos muestran similitudes entre los restos arqueológicos y el garum reproducido. El perfil mineral, la relación Ca/P y los niveles de hierro observados podrían explicarse por el uso de yeso, como aditivo, como agente desinfectante o como colorante.

Palabras clave


dolia; ácidos grasos; minerales; Arqueología Experimental; salsas de pescado romanas

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/zephyrus201882149163





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