Terapia física en la hipofunción vestibular unilateral y bilateral

José Ignacio BENITO OREJAS, María José AYLAGAS-ANDRÉS, Carmen MARTÍN-MORATINOS, Irene GALLARDO-CHAPARRO, Laura PÉREZ-HICKMAN, Vanesa ALADRO-ABAD, Niria PLAZA-GARCÍA, José María LÓPEZ-FRANCO, Beatriz DÍEZ-RABADÁN, Carmen GARCÍA-FRANCO, Lucía SECO-RODRÍGUEZ, Felipa PANIAGUA-SERRANO, María Elena BUSTELO-SANZ, María Teresa JIMÉNEZ-GARCÍA, Diana ALONSO-TOBALINA, Serán Tamara GARCÍA-SOMOZA, Ana Isabel GÓMEZ-TEJERO, Inés ALONSO-RODRÍGUEZ, María Jesús COLLAZOS-VILLAFÁFILA, Irene GARCÍA-MARTÍNEZ, María Teresa BAZ-HERRERO, Laura Alejandra MARTÍN-GUTIÉRREZ, Cristina MARTÍN-TUDA, Inés Flavia DE LA CAL-GÓMEZ, Ana SÁNCHEZ-MARTÍNEZ

Resumen


Introducción: La rehabilitación vestibular (RV) basada en la terapia física, tiene el objetivo, en el caso de patología vestibular, de inducir la compensación del sistema nervioso central (SNC) a nivel de núcleos vestibulares y de otros niveles del SNC. Incluye ejercicios de habituación, adaptación y sustitución vestibular, ejercicios para mejorar el equilibrio y el control postural dinámico y ejercicios para el acondicionamiento general. En este capítulo discutimos los recientes avances sobre el adiestramiento del equilibrio y de la marcha, la estabilidad de la mirada y la habituación, en el contexto de los trastornos vestibulares uni y bilaterales. Método: Revisión narrativa. Resultados: Los ejercicios se prescriben para mejorar la función; fortaleciendo, y favoreciendo la flexibilidad y la resistencia, a través de la adaptación del RVO, la habituación, la sustitución sensorial, la marcha y el equilibrio postural. Son más eficaces los programas personalizados que los genéricos. El cumplimiento mejora con la personalización y las visitas de seguimiento a un fisioterapeuta. Discusión/Conclusiones: La RV permite mejorar el déficit funcional y los síntomas subjetivos derivados de la hipofunción vestibular periférica uni y bilateral, así como las alteraciones del equilibrio de origen central. Los objetivos de la RV consisten en reducir los síntomas para mejorar la estabilidad postural y de la mirada (particularmente durante los movimientos de la cabeza) y devolver al individuo a sus actividades normales, incluyendo la actividad física, la conducción y el trabajo habitual. Los médicos deben ofrecer la RV a quienes muestren limitaciones funcionales relacionadas con un déficit vestibular, pues actualmente se considera el tratamiento estándar en la disfunción vestibular periférica.

Palabras clave


Mareo; equilibrio; rehabilitación vestibular; estabilidad de la mirada; estabilidad postural; habituación.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/orl.21022

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