Rehabilitación vestibular en la dependencia visual y somatosensorial.

Michael BAUER, José Ignacio BENITO-OREJAS, Jesús Eduardo RAMÍREZ-SALAS

Resumen


Introducción: En la disfunción vestibular crónica es frecuente que se incremente el mareo o el desequilibrio con el propio movimiento o con el de un ambiente visual sobrecargado, lo que se denomina dependencia visual, que forma parte del síndrome de vértigo/mareo inducido visualmente. En otras ocasiones, la dependencia es somatosensorial y el paciente pierde con facilidad el equilibrio al alterarse la superficie de soporte.

El objetivo de esta revisión es describir las características de la dependencia visual y somatosensorial y el modo de tratarlas.

Método: Revisión narrativa.

Resultados: El vértigo visual se diagnostica clínicamente a través de los síntomas referidos por el paciente. Mediante la exposición a estímulos desencadenantes, el sistema nervioso central se habitúa, incrementando la tolerancia. El tratamiento utilizado se basa en la terapia física, la realidad virtual y la estimulación optocinética progresiva.

Conclusión/Discusión: Aunque sigue siendo tema de discusión la naturaleza de las entradas visuales que determinan la estabilidad postural, el objetivo terapéutico consiste en desensibilizar al individuo del estímulo visual para mejorar su sintomatología.

Palabras clave


Vértigo visual; rehabilitación vestibular; habituación; equilibrio; dependencia visual; estabilidad postural

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14201/orl.21241

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